Independence is a state of mind that applies to the individual as well as to the State: it is the starting point for the organisation of the self and the State and is the basis for all ones activities to channel a future free of the legal constraints that are found unacceptable for survival with dignity.
Given the complexities of the Union of the United Kingdom in particular the movements in Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales, if any part of the United Kingdom now wishes to hold a referendum to determine the democratic basis for their independence or for nationalism or even republicanism, these proceedings should be done without the legal approval of the mother country of United Kingdom effectively (which is England for all intents and purposes) and if those democratic results are then on the affirmative to isolate that part from the Union the people should be left to create a nation peacefully and then to see how well they do independently. It is the reverse of forming coalitions in the superstate, and Brexit has been the correct procedure for disengagement with the European Union except that the United Kingdom must now review if the UK should leave without a deal, or whether there will not be full disengagement as the Boris Johnson deal implicitly prescribes. It would be interesting to see whether the Brexit Party survives the implementation of this deal to reinvigorate the process of full independence for the United Kingdom from the European Union.
Scotland is particulary important for a study of so called Scottish nationalism. They have an utter hatred for the Conservative and Unionist Party of the United Kingdom as seen from persistent pronouncements. They have camaraderie with the Labour Party through history although this element is now disenfranchised in the past two decades. They want to be part of the European Union when the rest of the United Kingdom is withdrawing from this super-state. The want immigration into Scotland from the European Union. So what is their prime motivation for calling themselves Nationalists? The speak English and have not said that they are republicans who do not wish to subject themselves to a monarchial regime as represented by the Queen of the United Kingdom. Is it therefore a hatred of capitalism in that they are essentially international socialists? Certainly formerly Labour Members of Parliament from Scotland have dominated the political arena out of Scotland. It would therefore appear that the leaders are using nationalism incorrectly for its soundbites. Further uptodate analysis can be read here: https://uk.yahoo.com/news/nicola-sturgeon-demand-powers-scottish-022610687.html
The process of forming communities that take the form of racial groups and eventually of modern States is part of human evolution that has determined that man is a social animal and cannot survive to optimality by living in Nature singularly or he will perish like the dinosaurs and countless other species. Birds of a feather flock together is a famous saying in this regard. Cooperation strengthens the species, and this is achieved through social cohesion.
This brings one to the question of what is the optimal geographical size of State and society? The answer to this must be that it depends on the natural resource and human endowments of peoples living in close proximity of each other and whether they have common values that they wish to live to, such as religion or economics or philosophical attributes. It therefore is a suitable topic for discussion under Humanology that this website focuses on.
The concept of Union of States applies throughout the world and depending on what level of force is used to quell independence appropriate solutions are found. Civil unrest results in states such as Kashmir and Myanmar as two prime examples in recent news bulletins. In some cases the conflicts between communities generate refugees who flee to other countries that are willing and able to accept them as asylum seekers, for example Germany. The United Nations High Commission for Refugees assists in the resettlement when the persecuted and marginalised human communities are unable to live within a given geographical setting. So formation of Union of States colonisation, immigration and emigration are part of human development and evolution that has brought humanity out of Africa for resettlement elsewhere. It is nothing new that human spirit will continue to seek independence and liberty, and these movements should be faciliatated by all peace loving people.